Hormones are the secret rulers of our body and our psyche. They control our body, work in very small doses and have great influence on our well-being. The level of the following hormones plays a decisive role in weight maintenance.
Insulin is produced in the pancreas and is vital to supplying the body's cells with nutrients. Insulin docks at the cell membrane, whereupon the cell nucleus forms transporters that transport sugar, protein and fat through a transport shaft into the cell, where they are burned for energy production or used as building blocks. When the cell has absorbed sufficient nutrients, it closes the transport shafts and thus protects the cell from hyperglycemia. The cell is now insulin insensitive. If, however, sugar building blocks are still in the blood, they stand with the insulin in front of the closed cell door. The pancreas then increases the release of insulin in order to force more sugar and other nutrients into the cells. Remaining nutrients are stored by the insulin in the fatty tissue.
In addition to lowering blood sugar, insulin controls fat processing and fat storage and thus has a direct influence on our body weight. High insulin levels stop fat burning and simultaneously store fat in the cells. Insulin is therefore also known as the "fattening hormone."
Insulin resistance occurs when the pancreas has to produce ever larger amounts of insulin in order to press nutrients into the cells due to permanently elevated blood sugar levels. Due to the constant overfeeding of the cells, the insulin receptors in the cells retreat and insulin resistance occurs. The result is a permanently high insulin level, which makes losing weight practically impossible.
Human Growth Hormone
The human growth hormone is released mainly at night during sleep. It sets regeneration and repair processes in motion, promotes fat reduction and muscle growth, and strengthens the immune system.
The human growth hormone is a direct counterpart to insulin.
The male sex hormone testosterone is not only responsible for the development of the male sex organs, but at the same time promotes both muscle building and fat burning.
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
These hormones are produced during exercise and are therefore also called exercise hormones. They stimulate the metabolism and the muscles release stored fatty deposits from the fat tissue to boost energy.
This is a strong hunger-trigger hormone. It is produced, for example, when there is a steep drop in blood sugar levels.
Opponent to neuropeptide Y, it can stop hunger immediately to the point of not wanting to eat at all, for example, in times of extreme stress or grief.